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Что такое x ray

Поиск по меткам: Последние новости о Lada xray

18 августа 2021, 09:17

АВТОВАЗ возобновил производство LADA Largus и XRAY

АВТОВАЗ сегодня, как и планировалось, возобновил производство автомобилей на линии № 1 (платформа B0), которая будет работать в течение двух дней (18-19 августа). Напомним, на этой линии помимо моделей LADA Largus и XRAY, выпускаются также Renault Logan и Sandero. Об этом агентству «АВТОСТАТ» сообщили в пресс-службе АВТОВАЗа.

14 июля 2021, 10:59

На АВТОВАЗе снова приостановлено производство автомобилей на платформе В0

14 июля АВТОВАЗ на 1 день приостановил производство на линии по сборке автомобилей на платформе В0. Как сообщили агентству «АВТОСТАТ» в пресс-службе автозавода, это вынужденное решение – в связи с недопоставкой электронных компонентов со стороны компании «Bosch Самара».

10 июня 2021, 09:39

АВТОВАЗ возобновил выпуск моделей LADA Largus и XRAY

АВТОВАЗ сегодня возобновил производство автомобилей на сборочной линии B0, работа которой была приостановлена 7-9 июня 2021 года из-за дефицита в поставках электронных компонентов. Об этом агентству «АВТОСТАТ» сообщили в пресс-службе предприятия.

8 июня 2021, 08:02

АВТОВАЗ отказался от рестайлинга LADA XRAY

АВТОВАЗ, который ранее планировал рестайлинг высокого хэтчбека LADA XRAY, отказался от этих планов. Об этом изданию «За рулем» заявил директор проекта «Семейство автомобилей LADA XRAY» Олег Груненков, добавив, что в компании намерены сосредоточиться на выпуске спецверсий LADA XRAY – эксперимент с версиями Instinct и Black оказался успешен.

21 апреля 2021, 08:00

От A до Z: какие автомобили покинули российский рынок в 1 квартале?

Позади первая четверть года и логично будет подвести его промежуточные итоги. Про ситуацию на рынке все уже в курсе, поэтому спешим сообщить вам об изменениях, которые происходят в модельных рядах некоторых марок.

12 апреля 2021, 10:24

АВТОВАЗ начал продажи автомобилей LADA с новой мультимедийной системой EnjoY Pro

АВТОВАЗ начал продажи автомобилей с мультимедийной системой LADA EnjoY Pro с Яндекс.Авто. Новая мультимедийная система представлена в автомобилях семейства LADA Vesta, включая версию Sport, а также XRAY Cross и XRAY.

24 марта 2021, 13:16

LADA XRAY с мотором 1,6 пополнился «роботом» АМТ

У модели LADA XRAY расширилось количество модификаций – теперь высокий хэтчбек с мотором 1,6 литра (106 л.с.) будет комплектоваться роботизированной трансмиссией АМТ. Как сообщает пресс-служба АВТОВАЗа, производство новой версии стартовало в марте.

9 марта 2021, 09:52

АВТОВАЗ оставил LADA XRAY без связки мотора 1.8 и «механики»

АВТОВАЗ убрал из конфигуратора высокого хэтчбека LADA XRAY четыре комплектации. С 7 марта эту модель нельзя заказать со 122-сильным мотором 1.8 и 5-ступенчатой механической передач: более мощный двигатель доступен только в сочетании с роботизированной коробкой передач AMT.

3 марта 2021, 10:47

LADA XRAY может получить обновленные комплектации

Высокий хэтчбек LADA XRAY на всех комплектациях получит серебристые рейлинги под установку багажной системы на крыше.

15 февраля 2021, 12:36

АВТОВАЗ отзывает более 9 тысяч автомобилей LADA XRAY

АВТОВАЗ объявил об отзыве 9311 автомобилей LADA XRAY, изготовленных с января по май 2019 года. Причиной отзыва является возможное повреждение сварного шва вала электромеханического усилителя рулевого управления.

Наличие

  • 5.9 л/100 км
  • Механика (MT5)
  • 1.6 л Бензиновый

  • 5.9 л/100 км
  • Механика (MT5)
  • 1.6 л Бензиновый

  • 5.9 л/100 км
  • Механика (MT5)
  • 1.6 л Бензиновый

  • 5.9 л/100 км
  • Механика (MT5)
  • 1.6 л Бензиновый

  • 5.9 л/100 км
  • Механика (MT5)
  • 1.6 л Бензиновый

  • 5.9 л/100 км
  • Механика (MT5)
  • 1.6 л Бензиновый

  • 5.9 л/100 км
  • Механика (MT5)
  • 1.6 л Бензиновый

Интерьер и экстерьер Lada X-Ray

Дизайн автомобиля аналогичен Lada Vesta, фронтально и с боков просматриваются очертания символа Х. Кроссовер рельефный, мускулистый, объемные крылья и двери придают динамичности и уверенности. Оригинальной стала крупная решетка радиатора с символов Lada. Лада X-Ray получился комфортным и размеренным, внутри множество отделов, подстаканников, кармашков, под креслом пассажира находится выдвижной отсек, имеется охлаждающий ящик. Центральная консоль также выполнена в форме Х. Торпедо в своей основе использует элементы управления Лада Vesta. Задние кресла раскладываются 60/40, установлен двойной пол в багажнике.

Image-Based Modeling and Precision Medicine

2.2.2 X-Ray-Based Techniques

X-ray-based techniques are not commonly used techniques in oncology. Traditional X-rays are used as a first-line method in detection of primary or secondary (metastatic) lung and bone cancer. Digital mammography, which uses static low dose-amplitude X-rays is used for breast cancer detection. Digital breast tomosynthesis, which builds 3D tomographic images from limited rotation angle X-rays, is also used. Digital fluoroscopy, which consists of an X-ray source and a fluorescent detection system coupled to an image digitization and recording device, is commonly used to obtain real-time moving images of internal structures.

X-rays

  • What are medical x-rays?
  • How do medical x-rays work?
  • When are medical x-rays used?
  • Are there risks?
  • What are NIBIB-funded researchers developing in the field of x-ray technology?

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to visible light. Unlike light, however, x-rays have higher energy and can pass through most objects, including the body. Medical x-rays are used to generate images of tissues and structures inside the body. If x-rays travelling through the body also pass through an x-ray detector on the other side of the patient, an image will be formed that represents the “shadows” formed by the objects inside the body.

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How Do X-rays Work?

One type of x-ray detector is photographic film, but there are many other types of detectors that are used to produce digital images. The x-ray images that result from this process are called radiographs.

To create a radiograph, a patient is positioned so that the part of the body being imaged is located between an x-ray source and an x-ray detector. When the machine is turned on, x-rays travel through the body and are absorbed in different amounts by different tissues, depending on the radiological density of the tissues they pass through. Radiological density is determined by both the density and the atomic number (the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus) of the materials being imaged. For example, structures such as bone contain calcium, which has a higher atomic number than most tissues. Because of this property, bones readily absorb x-rays and, thus, produce high contrast on the x-ray detector. As a result, bony structures appear whiter than other tissues against the black background of a radiograph. Conversely, x-rays travel more easily through less radiologically dense tissues such as fat and muscle, as well as through air-filled cavities such as the lungs. These structures are displayed in shades of gray on a radiograph.

Listed below are examples of examinations and procedures that use x-ray technology to either diagnose or treat disease:

Diagnostic

X-ray radiography: Detects bone fractures, certain tumors and other abnormal masses, pneumonia, some types of injuries, calcifications, foreign objects, dental problems, etc.

Mammography: A radiograph of the breast that is used for cancer detection and diagnosis. Tumors tend to appear as regular or irregular-shaped masses that are somewhat brighter than the background on the radiograph (i.e., whiter on a black background or blacker on a white background). Mammograms can also detect tiny bits of calcium, called microcalcifications, which show up as very bright specks on a mammogram. While usually benign, microcalcifications may occasionally indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer.

CT (computed tomography): Combines traditional x-ray technology with computer processing to generate a series of cross-sectional images of the body that can later be combined to form a three-dimensional x-ray image. CT images are more detailed than plain radiographs and give doctors the ability to view structures within the body from many different angles.

Fluoroscopy: Uses x-rays and and a fluorescent screen to obtain real-time images of movement within the body or to view diagnostic processes, such as following the path of an injected or swallowed contrast agent. For example, fluoroscopy is used to view the movement of the beating heart, and, with the aid of radiographic contrast agents, to view blood flow to the heart muscle as well as through blood vessels and organs. This technology is also used with a radiographic contrast agent to guide an internally threaded catheter during cardiac angioplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure for opening clogged arteries that supply blood to the heart.

Therapeutic

Radiation therapy in cancer treatment: X-rays and other types of high-energy radiation can be used to destroy cancerous tumors and cells by damaging their DNA. The radiation dose used for treating cancer is much higher than the radiation dose used for diagnostic imaging. Therapeutic radiation can come from a machine outside of the body or from a radioactive material that is placed in the body, inside or near tumor cells, or injected into the blood stream.
Click here for more information on radiation therapy for cancer.

When used appropriately, the diagnostic benefits of x-ray scans significantly outweigh the risks. X-ray scans can diagnose possibly life-threatening conditions such as blocked blood vessels, bone cancer, and infections. However, x-rays produce ionizing radiation—a form of radiation that has the potential to harm living tissue. This is a risk that increases with the number of exposures added up over the life of the individual. However, the risk of developing cancer from radiation exposure is generally small.

An x-ray in a pregnant woman poses no known risks to the baby if the area of the body being imaged isn’t the abdomen or pelvis. In general, if imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is needed, doctors prefer to use exams that do not use radiation, such as MRI or ultrasound. However, if neither of those can provide the answers needed, or there is an emergency or other time constraint, an x-ray may be an acceptable alternative imaging option.

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Children are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and have a longer life expectancy and, thus, a higher relative risk for developing cancer than adults. Parents may want to ask the technologist or doctor if their machine settings have been adjusted for children.

Click on the following links for information about risks for specific procedures:

Current research of x-ray technology focuses on ways to reduce radiation dose, improve image resolution, and enhance contrast materials and methods. For detailed examples of research advancements for specific imaging procedures, click on the links below:

NASA Science Mission Directorate

X-RAYS AND ENERGY

X-rays have much higher energy and much shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light, and scientists usually refer to x-rays in terms of their energy rather than their wavelength. This is partially because x-rays have very small wavelengths, between 0.03 and 3 nanometers, so small that some x-rays are no bigger than a single atom of many elements.

DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS

X-rays were first observed and documented in 1895 by German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. He discovered that firing streams of x-rays through arms and hands created detailed images of the bones inside. When you get an x-ray taken, x-ray sensitive film is put on one side of your body, and x-rays are shot through you. Because bones are dense and absorb more x-rays than skin does, shadows of the bones are left on the x-ray film while the skin appears transparent.

An x-ray image of teeth. Can you see the filling?

An X-ray photo of a one year old girl who swallowed a sewing pin. Can you find it?

Our Sun’s radiation peaks in the visual range, but the Sun’s corona is much hotter and radiates mostly x-rays. To study the corona, scientists use data collected by x-ray detectors on satellites in orbit around the Earth. Japan’s Hinode spacecraft produced these x-ray images of the Sun that allow scientists to see and record the energy flows within the corona.

TEMPERATURE AND COMPOSITION

The physical temperature of an object determines the wavelength of the radiation it emits. The hotter the object, the shorter the wavelength of peak emission. X-rays come from objects that are millions of degrees Celsius—such as pulsars, galactic supernovae remnants, and the accretion disk of black holes.

From space, x-ray telescopes collect photons from a given region of the sky. The photons are directed onto the detector where they are absorbed, and the energy, time, and direction of individual photons are recorded. Such measurements can provide clues about the composition, temperature, and density of distant celestial environments. Due to the high energy and penetrating nature of x-rays, x-rays would not be reflected if they hit the mirror head on (much the same way that bullets slam into a wall). X-ray telescopes focus x-rays onto a detector using grazing incidence mirrors (just as bullets ricochet when they hit a wall at a grazing angle).

NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, used x-rays to detect the spectral signatures of zinc and nickel in Martian rocks. The Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument uses two techniques, one to determine structure and another to determine composition. Both of these techniques work best for heavier elements such as metals.

SUPERNOVA

Since Earth’s atmosphere blocks x-ray radiation, telescopes with x-ray detectors must be positioned above Earth’s absorbing atmosphere. The supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) was imaged by three of NASA’s great observatories, and data from all three observatories were used to create the image shown below. Infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are colored red, optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope are yellow, and x-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory are green and blue.

The x-ray data reveal hot gases at about ten million degrees Celsius that were created when ejected material from the supernova smashed into surrounding gas and dust at speeds of about ten million miles per hour. By comparing infrared and x-ray images, astronomers are learning more about how relatively cool dust grains can coexist within the super-hot, x-ray producing gas.

EARTH’S AURORA IN X-RAYS

Solar storms on the Sun eject clouds of energetic particles toward Earth. These high-energy particles can be swept up by Earth’s magnetosphere, creating geomagnetic storms that sometimes result in an aurora. The energetic charged particles from the Sun that cause an aurora also energize electrons in the Earth’s magnetosphere. These electrons move along the Earth’s magnetic field and eventually strike the Earth’s ionosphere, causing the x-ray emissions. These x-rays are not dangerous to people on the Earth because they are absorbed by lower parts of the Earth’s atmosphere. Below is an image of an x-ray aurora by the Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE) instrument aboard the Polar satellite.

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Геометрия и экстерьер

Самым очевидным визуальным отличием «Кросса» является его «приподнятость» – высота кузова увеличилась на целых 75 мм! Это заслуга как переработанной подвески, так и колес большей размерности (установлены шины 215/50 R17). Дорожный просвет подрос на 20 мм и составляет теперь вполне «внедорожные» 215 мм. В остальном геометрия ходовой части осталась прежней – колесная база идентичная, а колея увеличилась всего на 11-14 мм для передних и задних колес соответственно.

Что касается дизайна экстерьера, то машина получила обновленный пластиковый обвес, который увеличил длину кузова на 6 мм, а ширину – на 46 мм. Неокрашенные кузовные накладки придают автомобилю визуальную утилитарность и спортивность. Также отметим рейлинги на крыше, которые теперь входят в базовую комплектацию. Фирменные X-образные выштамповки, эффектно выделяющие LADA XRAY в потоке, остались нетронутыми.

What should you do prior to your child’s exam?

There are no specific preparations for general X-rays, but here are some general things to remember:

  • Dress your child comfortably, in clothes that are easily removed. (Sweat clothes, t -shirts) Your child may be given a gown to change into for the X-ray, if required.
  • Limit the use of jewelry and/or metal (zippers, snaps) in the area that is being examined.

Note: Parents will be allowed to accompany their child into the exam room, other arrangements should be made for siblings.

Women who are pregnant or may be pregnant will be asked to leave the exam room during the procedure. Please make sure that there is someone else available to accompany the child during the exam, if needed.

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Meet our new Advisory Board Member

Dr. Ramón Fernández Ruiz
Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Meet our new Advisory Board Member

Dr. Melanie Bailey
University of Surrey, Surrey, UK

Meet our new Advisory Board Member

Dr. Sofia Pessanha
Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisbon (NOVA), Portugal

EXSA’S VIRTUAL CONFERENCE ON X-RAY SPECTROMETRY
June 21st-24th,2021.

This conference will consist of four half day sessions. The sessions will start shortly after noon in central Europe allowing our colleagues around the world to join at a more or less convenient time in their respective time zones. Sessions will cover the following:

XRS in environmental applications
XRS for novel materials including batteries, nanostructures, etc.
Instrumental development for XRS and its applications
Fundamental parameters

please visit the website for full details and registration: https://www.exsa.hu/conf2021/

Conference proceedings of EXSA2021 virtual conference on X-ray spectrometry

EXSA established in 2017 a series of biennial workshops, first focused on quantitative aspects in X-Ray Spectrometry. These events support EXSA’s primary objective to foster the innovation and cooperation between X-ray spectroscopists and analysts and to have a platform for scientific exchanges. This workshop series is well received by EXSA members and by the XRS community. With the COVID-19 pandemic persisting, many conferences worldwide are cancelled. To maintain the interactions between scientists working in the field of XRS, EXSA decided to organise a virtual conference, June 21st – 24th, 2021, which will cover applications relevant to the following topics:

  • XRS for environmental applications
  • XRS for novel materials including batteries, nanostructures, etc.
  • Instrumental development for XRS and its applications
  • Fundamental parameters

EXSA/XRS is calling for submissions of original works that describe the application of XRS in the environmental field as well as for novel materials, (e.g., batteries, solar cells, nanostructures). Other complementary aspects relate to instrumental developments for XRS and their applications and fundamental parameters.

For more information, do not hesitate to contact the guest editors.

Submission deadline: October 1st, 2021

Guest editors: Michael Kolbe (michael.kolbe@ptb.de), Diane Eichert (diane.eichert@elettra.eu)

Wiley EXSA Poster Prize and Wiley EXSA Oral Presentation Prize Announced

Prizes were announced at the EXSA’s workshop and school on Quantification Methods in X-ray Spectrometry in Lisbon, May 2019.

The Wiley EXSA poster prize went to Tatiana Sokoltsova (CEA Marcoule, France) for her poster entitled: «Development of a standardless miniature XRF system for the analysis of actinides.»

The WILEY EXSA oral presentation prize went to Patricia Carvalho (FCT, University Nova Lisbon, Portugal) for her presentation entitled: «Preliminary studies with an EDXRF imaging system based on a 2D THCOBRA detector for applications in biological tissues.»

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